Systems/Software: pedar

pedar Applications


  • gait analysis: the pedar is an extremely versatile pressure distribution analysis system. Since it operates wirelessly through Bluetooth technology, it can be used to evaluate gait both within the lab setting and also in real-life situations. Pressure, force and contact area are calculated, as well as many gait timing parameters such as stride, stance, and swing time. The important pressure and gait variables may be different based on the patient population, pre-post study design, or information desired.
    • Fong, DTP, et al. Estimating the complete ground reaction forces with pressure insoles in walking.  Journal of Biomechanics. 41. 2597-2601. 2008.
    • Crosbie, J. et al.  Pressure characteristics in painful pes cavus feet resulting from Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease. Gait & Posture 28. 545-551. 2008.
    • Crosbie, J. and Burns,  J.  Are in-shoe pressure characteristics in symptomatic idiopathic
      pes cavus related to the location of foot pain?  Gait & Posture 2007.
    • Gierer P, et al. Partial weight bearing after surgery for fractures of the lower extremity - is it achievable? Gait & Posture. 23:1. pp99-105. 2006
    • Murphy, D. Efficacy of Plantar Loading Parameters During Gait in Terms of Reliability, Variability, Effect of Gender and Relationship Between Contact Area and Plantar Pressure. Foot & Ankle International. 26:2. pp171-9. 2005.
    • Nurse, M and Nigg, B. The effect of changes in foot sensation on plantar pressure and muscle activity. Journal of Clinical Biomechanics. 16:9. pp719-27. 2001.
    • Orlin, M. Plantar Pressure Assessment. Physical Therapy. 80:4. pp399 -409. 2000.
    • Wilson JD, and Kernozek, TW. Plantar loading and cadence alterations with fatigue. Medicine & Science in Sport and Exercise. pp 1828-33. 1999.

    Nordic Walking Example (AVI video 2.2MB)

pedar Walking in the Lab Example(AVI video 1.5 MB)


Footwear Evaluation

  • footwear design and evaluation: designed to measure pressures and forces at the foot-shoe interface, the pedar in-shoe measurement system is perfect for footwear evaluation. All aspects of shoe design can be evaluated, from sole types, to lacing techniques and insole evaluation.
    • Stewart, L, et al. In-shoe pressure distribution in ‘‘unstable’’ (MBT) shoes and flat-bottomed training shoes: A comparative study.  Gait & Posture. 25: 648-651. 2007.
    • Kersting, UG and Bruggemann, GP. Midsole material-related force control during heel-toe running. Research in Sports Medicine. 14:1. pp1-17. 2006.
    • Hans-Dieter, C. Assessment of Plantar Pressure in Forefoot Relief Shoes of Different Designs. Foot & Ankle International. 27:2. pp117-20. 2006.
    • Hennig EM and Milani TL. Pressure distribution measurements for evaluation of running shoe properties. Sportverletzung Sportschaden. 14:3 pp90-7, 2000.

Shoe comparison video (avi video: 992 KB)

Please click here for the text of Prof. Ewald Hennig's lecture The Human Foot During Locomotion-Applied Reasearch for Footwear presented at the Wei Lun Lecture series October 2002.


  • orthotic evaluation: orthotics provide changes in gait parameters with all types of foot conditions. For example, orthotics can be specifically designed to reduce the peak pressures of the plantar aspect of the foot in patients with neuropathy due to diabetes. The pedar system can evaluate the foot pre and post orthotic intervention. Peak pressures and forces and contact area can all be evaluated. The important variables change with the main purpose of the orthoses.
    • Guldemond, NA, et al. The effects of insole configurations on forefoot plantar pressure and walking convenience in diabetic patients with neuropathic feet. Clinical Biomechanics.  22: 81-87. 2007.
    • Hinz, P, Rosenbaum, D, et al.  Analysis of pressure distribution below the metatarsals with different insoles in combat boots of the German Army for prevention of march fractures. Gait & Posture. 2007.
    • Guldemond, NA, et al. Casting Methods and Plantar Pressure Effects of Custom-made Foot Orthoses on Dynamic Plantar Pressure Distribution. Journal of the American Podiatric Medical Association. 96:1. pp9-18. 2006.
    • Leibner, E, et al. Unloading Mechanism in the Total Contact Cast. Foot & Ankle International. 27:4. pp281-5. 2006.
    • Hodge, M, et al. Orthotic management of plantar pressure and pain in rheumatoid arthritis. Journal of Clinical Biomechanics. 14:8, pp567-75. 1999.

Walker System (WMV video 550 KB)


Orthotic Evaluation (JPG 60KB)



  • running: as discussed above, the evaluation of footwear, including running shoes, could provide important information for the running population. The pedar system may also be able to evaluate in a runner’s gait patterns including timing characteristics and pressure and force patterns. All could be valuable information to the novice and elite runner.
    • Kersting, UG and Bruggemann, GP. Midsole material-related force control during heel-toe running. Research in Sports Medicine. 14:1. pp1-17. 2006.
    • Hennig EM and Milani TL. Pressure distribution measurements for evaluation of running shoe properties. Sportverletzung Sportschaden. 14:3 pp90-7, 2000.

    pedar-X Treadmill Walking (AVI video 12 MB)

  • golf: simulating golf measurements within a laboratory setting as compared to the measurements taken on a golf course can be very difficult, and sometimes even unrealistic. Therefore, evaluating the pressure, force and weight distribution of golfers ON the course is extremely important. The pedar system can log both the pressure and forces during the swing as well as when walking the course. Important variables such as weight shift and distribution can be determined.
    • Kersting, UG and Gurney, JK. Integration of 3D kinematics and pressure distribution measurements for golf swing analysis. EMED Scientific Meeting Abstract Book, Spitzingsee, 2006.

Golf Tee with Trajectory (WMV Video 1.6 MB)


  • skiing/speed skating: with an extended range antenna, the Bluetooth aspects of the pedar system can be expanded to cover an even larger area. The pedar system was recently used to evaluate downhill skiers and speed skaters in the last Olympics. Peak pressures and weight shift as the skier/skater turns could be important variables.
    • Holmberg, H-C, et al. Biomechanical Analysis of Double Polling in Elite Cross Country Skiers. Medicine & Science in Sport & Exercise. pp 807-18. 2005.
    • Cox, S, et al. Pressure analysis as a method for assessing lower limb function during skiing. EMED Scientific Meeting Abstract Book, Munich, 2000.

Downhill Ski Turns Example (AVI video 1.0 MB)

Downhill Ski Example (WMV video 3.6 MB)

Short Track Speed Skating Example (AVI video 4.6 MB)

  • soccer/basketball/biking etc.: since the pedar system is lightweight and completely mobile, it is perfect for looking a dynamic pressure distributions in all sports. Peak pressures and forces can be correlated with exercise techniques and movement patterns. The possibilities are endless …
    • Ford, KR, et al. Comparison of in-shoe foot loading patterns on natural grass and synthetic turf. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport. 2006.
    • Mao, DW. Plantar Pressure Distribution During Tai Chi Exercise. Archives Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation. 87. pp 814-20. 2006.
    • Eils, E, et al. Characteristic Plantar Pressure Distribution Patters During Soccer-Specific Movements. The American Journal of Sports Medicine. 32:1. pp.140-5. 2004.

Basketball with pedar (AVI Video 760 KB)

Soccer Dribble (AVI Video 545 KB)

For a complete listing of references relating to pressure, please click References.


Download Brochures

pedar-x (1 mb)
posturography (281 kb)
pedography overview (1.48 mb)
pedoped (4 mb)
pedoport (352 kb)

pedar HowTo data collection guide (2 mb)
pedar guide (17 kb)

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