- the diabetic foot: plantar pressure systems can aid in the early diagnosis of common medical problems (such as ulcers) in diabetic patients. The emed system was developed to provide precise measurements of the plantar pressure distribution of these neuropathic feet. Studies have found that diabetic patients had increased loading and contact time on certain areas of the foot. Variables such as peak pressure, peak force, contact time and the product of pressure or force with time (force-time and pressure-time integrals) have been shown to be very important in these studies.
- Owings, TM, Cavanagh, PC, et al. Custom Therapeutic Insoles based on foot shape and pressure. Diabetes Care. 31: 5. 2008.
- Turner, DE, Woodburn, J, et al. The relationship between passive ROM, gait ROM and plantar pressure. Diabetic Medicine. 24: 1240-46. 2007.
- Cavanagh, PC. What the practicing physician should know about diabetic foot biomechanics. The foot in diabetes: 3rd Edition. Wiley. 2000.
- Lavery, L, Armstrong, D, and Boulton, A. Ankle Equinus Deformity and Its Relationship to High Plantar Pressure in a Large Population with Diabetes Mellitus. Journal of American Podiatric Medical Association. 92:9. pp479. 2002.
- Armstrong, D, Lavery, L., and Bushman, X, Peak foot pressures influence the healing time of diabetic foot ulcers treated with total contact cats. Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development. 35:1. 1998.
- Cavanagh, PC. Clinical plantar pressure measurement in diabetes: rationale and methodology. The Foot pp.123-13. 1994.
Diabetes dynamic platform analysis (AVI video 5.0 MB)
- hallux valgus: the emed system can be used to observe changes in plantar pressure patterns. Hallux valugus is a common foot problem that causes the static subluxation of the first metatarsophaleangeal joint. Previous studies have shown that the hallux region peak pressure and force time integral and the central forefoot regional force time integral are factors that are related to the likelihood of hallux valgus.
- Lorei, TJ, Rosenbaum, D, et al. Pedographic, Clinical, and Functional Outcome after Scarf Osteotomy. Clinical Orthopedics and Related Research. 451, pp 161-166. 2006.
- Kernozek, TW, et al. Clinical and Biomechanical Risk Factors of Patients Diagnosed with Hallux Valgus. Journal of the American Podiatric Medical Association. 93:2. pp97-103. 2003.
- clubfoot: many different treatment options are available for the treatment of clubfoot. Dynamic pressure distribution analysis gives the surgeon another piece of information when determining the optimum treatment. Pressure patterns of clubfoot patients are compared to the contra-lateral side as well as healthy controls. Studies have shown that the center of pressure line may shift to the lateral aspect of the foot. Other variables of interest include contact area and foot progression angle.
- Favre, P, et al. The Contralateral Foot in Children With Unilateral Clubfoot: A Study of Pressures and Forces Involved in Gait. Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics. 27:1. pp54-59. 2007.
- Thometz JG, Liu, XC, et al. Correlation of foot radiographs with foot function as analyzed by plantar pressure distribution. Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics. 25:2. pp249-52, 2005.
- other applications: the emed system can be used as a general diagnostic tool to describe plantar pressures. The above examples have shown how pathological groups can be studied with the emed system, but these are not the only cases. For example, studies have been performed to understand the changes in dynamic plantar pressures as we age. Studies on children from the first stages of walking, to adolescence, to adults and the elderly have been investigated. Studies have also been performed on specific athletic populations such as dancers who walk en Pointe. The possibilities are endless…
- Teyhen et al. Dynamic plantar pressures associaDynamic plantar pressure parameters associated with static
arch height index during gait. Clinical Biomechanics. IN PRESS. 2009.
- Miller et al. Charcot-Marie-Tooth Type 1A with a Pes Planovalgus Foot Type: A Case Report. Journal of Foot and Ankle Surgery. 48:2. 2009.
- Turner, DE and Woodburn, J. Characterising the clinical and biomechanical features of severely deformed feet in rheumatoid arthritis. Gait & Posture. 28. 574-580. 2008.
- Walters et al. Effect of a Low-Dye Application of Scotchcast Soft Cast
on Peak and Mean Plantar Pressures in Subjects with a
Navicular Drop Greater than 10 mm. JAPMA. 98:6. pp 457-465. 2008.
- Liu, XC, et al. Dynamic Plantar Pressure Measurement for the Normal Subject: Free-mapping model for the analysis of pediatric foot deformities. Journal of Pediatric Orthopaedics, 25:1. pp103-6. 2005.
- Oeffinger DJ, et al. Foot pressure and radiographic outcome measures of lateral column lengthening for pes planovalgus deformity. Gait & Posture. 12:3. pp.189-95. 2000.
- Orlin, M. Plantar Pressure Assessment. Physical Therapy. 80:4. pp399 -409. 2000.
- Mittlmeier,T, et al. Functional monitoring during rehabilitation following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Journal of Clinical Biomechanics. 14:8. pp576-84. 1999.
- Kernozek, TW, et al. Comparisons of Plantar Pressure Between the Elderly and Young Adults. Gait and Posture, 3:3. 143-8. 1995.
- Albers, D, et al. Comparison of Foot Plantar Pressures During Walking and En Point. Kinesiology and Medicine for Dance.
Synchronize emed and EMG for analysis of drop jumps (AVI video 2.9 MB)
Dynamic platform analysis (AVI video 2.6 MB)
Children with emed (AVI video 700 KB)
For a complete listing of references relating to pressure, please click References.
emed systems, (3 mb)
emed-xl, (3 mb)
emed pedography software (1.74 mb)
pedography overview (1.48 mb)
pedography for the diabetic foot (3 mb)
Data Collection Info
emed HowTo data collection guide (100 kb)
emed guide (17 kb)
emed-xl specs (120 kb)
emed-x specs (16 kb)
emed-q specs (16 kb)
emed-n specs (16 kb)
emed-c specs (16 kb)
emed-a specs (16 kb)
emed-xl walkway specs (45 kb)
emed-x, -q, -n walkway specs (17 kb)
emed-a, c walkway specs (17 kb)
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